Chapter 2 Geopolitical Meltdown
Table of Contents
II. Shifting Geopolitics
III. The United Nations and United Nations Security Council
B. A New World Order: The 1945 Creation of the U.N. and the UNSC
C. Humanity’s Dirty Little Secret
D. The UNSC: The Need for Divestiture of Power
V. China’s Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: Fact or Fallacy
VI. People’s Republic of China: A Lack of Trust
A. The House of Cards
B. A Case of the “Emperor’s New Clothes”
VII. An Indirect Attack on Global Peacekeeping Missions
About the Author
The catalyst for this foreign policy analysis was a press release issued Wednesday, April 1, 2015 by United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). When read contextually with ongoing current events, the UNEP ignored the fact that economic terrorism is looming on the horizon. Its contents are salient, however, as events do not occur in isolation and as it provides an excellent exemplar:
This week the #US and #Russia submitted their #climate action plans ahead of COP21 in Paris later this year. A total of 32 developed countries covering nearly 80% of the total #emissions from industrialized nations have now delivered their contributions to the Paris Agreement (Emphasis in Original)[i].
The United Nations (U.N.) July Climate Change Conference, COP21 and CMP11, has been lauded as critical to reversing the devastation caused by climate change. The objective is a legally binding and universal agreement on climate change from the participatory nations.
A preliminary conference was held this past December in Lima, Peru, at which time Christiana Figueres, U.N. Climate Change Secretariat, stated, “Underdeveloped and under-funded nations must be able to contribute an Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) as a condition precedent to participation”. Ms. Figueres concluded that it “…was unrealistic to expect a miracle solution at the July 2015 U.N. summit in Paris based on the anticipated inability of signatory nations to contribute required ‘pledges’”[ii].
II. Shifting Geopolitics
Herein lays the first endemic problem, as historically underdeveloped countries, all U.N. member states, have been precluded from borrowing funds from its sister organizations, the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The IMF and WB consist of the same 188 member nations:
- “The IMF is a specialized agency within the meaning of the United Nations Charter, and its relationship with the United Nations is defined by a special agreement between the two organizations. Its members are represented through a quota system broadly based on their relative size in the global economy[iii].”
- “The organizations that make up the World Bank Group are owned by the governments of member nations, which have the ultimate decision-making power within the organizations on all matters, including policy, financial or membership issues. To become a member of the Bank, under the IBRD Articles of Agreement, a country must first join the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Membership in IDA, IFC and MIGA are conditional on membership in IBRD[iv].”
The inter-relationship between the WB, IMF and the U.N. has been exploited by its leaders. The leadership selection process for these and other collective government entities is based on the financial prowess of their respective member nations. Under the U.N. and other charters, leaders are bound by treaties to make decisions equally benefiting all member nations. As diplomatic corp members, however, votes are cast to protect their respective countries pecuniary interests.
This system has resulted in a self-perpetuating cycle of inequality. Over time, it has fractured the global community, calling into question the efficacy and even the continued existence of those institutional structures upon which global stability is based.
“Everywhere, globalisation has eroded the capacity of states to control their citizens, their territories and the forces determining their future… what I see trying to take its place is a dangerous retreat into unilateralism, ultra-nationalism and the politics of identity,” reflected Kofi Annan, former United Nations Secretary-General and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate[v].
“The global context in which we find the world in 2015 is one where globalization appears on the retreat. Instead, we are seeing greater competition between states, the emergence of regional trade and a renewed reliance on economic sanctions as a foreign policy device. I believe this propensity to disrupt extended global value chains is not fully appreciated within the international business community,” opined Espen Barth Edie, author of the World Economic Forum’s Global Risk Report[vi].
Mr. Edie concluded:
The risk of deglobalization is the biggest economic risk the world faces. The irony is that while inequality is widening the gulf between the rich and poor within countries, globalization is actually helping to narrow the gap between poor and rich states, with more and more developing countries becoming middle income just as richer nations enter decline. In this way, it’s vital that leaders find ways of addressing inequality to allow globalization to continue helping grow prosperity and delivering people from poverty (Emphasis in Original)[vii].
We are now confronted with rapidly escalating deglobalization:
Deglobalization is not a synonym for withdrawing from the world economy. It means a process of restructuring the world economic and political system so that the latter builds the capacity of local and national economies instead of degrading it. Deglobalization means the transformation of a global economy from one integrated around the needs of transnational corporations to one integrated around the needs of peoples, nations and communities[viii].
The remedy is a conscious and collective effort to eliminate inequalities. For instance, underdeveloped countries lack access to funding sources not only to make the required INDC but also to create and maintain critically-needed sustainable infrastructures essential to remedying long-standing inequities. Infrastructure includes clean water, food, health care, education, the ability to earn a living, technology, renewable energy sources, resource management, the protection of human rights, and the ability to redress grievances. Inequities, driven by historical hatreds, are the root cause of disenfranchised governments and disempowered individuals, and have fostered armed conflict, perpetuated terrorism, and the commission of war crimes[ix].
III. The United Nations and United Nations Security Council
Having failed to foster equality, global leadership empowered China. China’s power derives from its “…double-digit economic growth over the past 15 years lifted” that “vaulted the country to the world’s second-largest economy[x].” In less than two months, with stealth-like precision, China strategically and concurrently implemented two initiatives presenting an imminent threat to global stability and security.
First, China, along with Russia, two of the five permanent United Nations Security Council (UNSC) members, issued a statement on February 2, 2015 supporting India’s bid to for one of five permanent UNSC seats[xi]. If India supplanted one of the remaining three permanent UNSC members, Great Britain, France or the United States, would lose its seat.
The statement further declared that the three nations, with China at the helm, would “build a more just, fair and stable international political and economic order” and a “multi-polar” world”, stating that “We advocate the principle of partnership rather than alliance,” stated Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi[xii].
This paper will set forth concrete reasons why China, despite its coffers, is not deigned to lead an already troubled humanity to a place of stability and security.
B. A New World Order: The 1945 Creation of the U.N. and the UNSC
China’s statement ignored the reality that seventy years ago the U.N. was created to bring order to a world left in a state of disorder following World War II. The U.N. Charter sets forth its purpose, for its 193 member nations and, to a limited extent, non-member states and regions:
1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
3. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
4. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends[xiii].
The 15 member UNSC consists of five permanent members, China, the United States (U.S.), the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and France, and ten nonpermanent members. “The General Assembly is responsible for electing the 10 members to staggered two years terms, with no limit to the number of times any one country can be elected[xiv]”.
The U.N. Charter stipulates that the General Assembly has imbued the public’s trust in the UNSC to fairly undertake the following responsibilities:
- The UNSC is responsible for maintaining global peace and security[xv]:
In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf[xvi].
- The UNSC approves and coordinates global peacekeeping missions, including joint operations with allied forces and NATO[xvii].
- The UNSC is singularly responsible for voting on U.N. member state applications[xviii].
- The five permanent members have exclusive veto power over and discretionary enforcement of decisions rendered by the U.N.’s International Court of Justice (ICJ)[xix]. The ICJ issues legal advisory opinions and, like the International Criminal Court[xx], it hears cases involving human rights violations and the commission of war crimes[xxi].
The UNSC, as well as the U.N., have been globally criticized by private and public sector leaders for failing its essential purpose[xxii]. Over-burgeoned by multiple conflicts and escalating humanitarian crises, the UN is unable to operate effectively[xxiii] There also exists “A lack of trust, either between people or between people and leaders, is one key reason, as is continuing economic and social inequalities. A third is weakness of our international governance structures[xxiv].” The malcontent has spurred several initiatives calling for a restructuring of the both the U.N. and the UNSC.
C. Humanity’s Dirty Little Secret
The obvious catalyst is the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The UNSC has twice denied the Palestinian people’s request to be recognized as a member state, with the most recent denial occurring on December 30, 2014[xxv].
The dynamics are complex[xxvi]. Based on the presumption of an ongoing Hamas-ISIS relationship, the UNSC’s decision was initially supported by the international community. However, the Hamas-ISIS relationship no longer existed at the time Palestine’s application for member state status was submitted. ISIS abandoned Hamas as the Palestinian people have no land for ISIS to control and, after the Israeli government refused to transmit tax monies rightfully owing the Palestinian Authority, there remained no money to extort.
The truth is that the UNSC denied an application made by the Palestinian people who were left lacking the resources necessary to alleviate the humanitarian crises created by ‘Operation Protective Edge’, Israel’s July 8, 2014 military operation, which indiscriminately targeted those civilians it had forcibly displaced to the Gaza Strip[xxvii].
The Palestinian’s application was a cry for humanitarian assistance and for redress of Israel’s long-standing practice of ethnic cleansing[xxviii]. Since achieving statehood in 1948, Israel has engaged in ethnic cleansing, a form of Scientific Racism, related to genocide, by displacing the Palestinians from their homelands[xxix]. Like genocide, ethnic cleansing is a war crime[xxx].
It is “…a too often forgotten fact: namely, that anti-Semitism has to be looked at as something more profound than prejudice or the mere dislike of Jews or Judaism. It is a metaphysical condition with a long and complex history. It is not affected by particulars; rather, it actually affects and shapes the way the world is perceived. And it can express itself in the most unexpected forms—even, as Nathan Shields shows, in the form of seemingly “pure” and abstract sound.”[xxxi]’
The dirty little secret extends, however, to all of humanity. Scientific Racism or, more aptly stated, historical hatreds, bred of ignorance and cultural conditioning, underscores almost every conflict in today’s world.
“The crimes of all crimes in international law are crimes of jus cogens such as genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. The basis of these crimes stem from one and one thing only-racism and hate[xxxiv].” It is the least acknowledged, let alone prosecuted, war crime[xxxv].
Left without justice or redress, the suffering experienced by its victims is exacerbated[xxxvi]. As such, even if a country has not committed Scientific Racism, then it has been involved by virtue of its failure to minimally come to table to open the dialogue needed to begin healing humanity.
“It takes courage to address the rights of victims genuinely, but it is fundamental to heal wounds permanently. In a world riddled with conflict, this courage will be more essential than ever. The international community needs to do more to support countries through this often difficult process,” reflected Mr. Annan[xxxvii]
D. The UNSC: The Need for Divestiture of Power
The problems outlined above barely scratch the surface of what is not working within the U.N., most particularly, within UNSC. Changing either the structure or powers of the UNSC can occur only by amendment to the U.N. Charter. The process is as follows:
CHAPTER XVIII: AMENDMENTS
Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the United Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations, including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
A General Conference of the Members of the United Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any nine members of the Security Council. Each Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the conference.
Any alteration of the present Charter recommended by a two-thirds vote of the conference shall take effect when ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
If such a conference has not been held before the tenth annual session of the General Assembly following the coming into force of the present Charter, the proposal to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of that session of the General Assembly, and the conference shall be held if so decided by a majority vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any seven members of the Security Council (Emphasis Added)[xxxviii].
The call for reform, while global, has been best articulated by two groups. The first set of initiatives has been spearheaded by The Elders, a nonpartisan peacekeeping group founded by the late Nelson Mandela. Chaired by Mr. Annan, The Elders consists of 11 other former elected and appointed officials and heads-of-state, including former President Jimmy Carter. Each member has an established record as a trusted world leader. Its February 17, 2015 press release stated:
Seventy years since its foundation, the UN is still not delivering its Charter pledge “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war”. The organisation is seen as not truly representative of all member states and insufficiently transparent in its decision-making.
To this end The Elders issue four proposals [a new category of members, a pledge from permanent members, a voice for civil society and a more independent Secretary-General] to build a better and fairer UN system. Key to this is breaking the Security Council stalemate[xxxix].
Restructuring the UNSC so those countries most affected by decisions have a voice that is heard, as required by the U.N. Charter[xl], was elaborated upon by The Elders in a subsequent statement:
Let the UN Security Council listen more carefully to those affected by its decisions. From now on, let them – and the whole Council – give groups representing people in zones of conflict a real change to inform and influence their decisions (Emphasis in Original)[xli].
Deputy Chair Gro Harlem Bruntland, former Norwegian Prime Minister and Director-General of the World Health Organization, indirectly addressed the UNSC’s December 2014 denial of Palestine’s member state application:
Permanent members should not use their veto without proposing an alternative. Let them say clearly what solution they propose in the larger interests of our shared humanity (Emphasis in Original)[xlii].
Mr. Annan was unequivocal that, “We need to create a world that is equitable, that is stable and a world were we bear in mind the needs of others[xliii].”
A second initiative emanates from Uniting for Consensus (UfC), formed following a conference arranged by Italian Ambassador Marcello Spatafora, which was attended by 111 of the U.N.’s 193 member states. The UfC’s mission statement is to increase the number of non-permanent UNSC members, from the existing ten rotating seats, to a composition and number reflecting greater regional representation. In a March 26, 2015 press release, the UfC expounded upon its position:
[W]e could support a UNSC of up to 26 members in total – a Council that is more representative of the international community as a whole while preserving the principles of democracy and accountability to Member States. The legitimacy of the Council depends not only – or even primarily – on its composition, but on its transparency, accountability and effectiveness. It is not just about who takes decisions, but most importantly the inclusive and democratic nature of decision-making[xliv].
The push for internal restructuring also came from within the U.N. In 2014, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon “…established a 17-member High-level Independent Panel on UN Peace Operations to make a comprehensive assessment of the state of UN peace operations today, and the emerging needs of the future[xlv].” As Mr. Ki-moon’s seven-year term expires this year, requiring selection of a successor, stability of the U.N. has been further challenged[xlvi].
IV. China’s Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: Fact or Fallacy
Second, surreptitiously striking a potentially deadly blow to global financial stability, China concurrently moved ahead in implementing its Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). The stated rationale for its necessity differs radically from the underlying reason.
The reason articulated by the Peoples Republic of China:
The AIIB is a regional international financial institution originally proposed by the Chinese government in 2013 and launched in October 2014. The objective of the bank is to finance road, rail, port, and other infrastructure construction projects[xlvii].
The actual impetus is quite disparate from the stated rationale:
Reforms to give China a little more say at the International Monetary Fund have been delayed for years, and even if they go through America will still retain far more power. China is, understandably, impatient for change. It is therefore taking matters into its own hands.
Setting up rivals to the IMF and World Bank is easier than running them[xlviii].
China’s well-calculated move came less six months after the July 17, 2014 announcement that it was moving forward with the New Development Bank, better known as The BRICS[xlix]. The BRICS five founding nations, China, Russia, India, South Africa and Brasil, represent 40% of the world’s population.
The BRICS’ stated objective parallels that of the AIIB. China’s motivation is, again, cause for global concern:
- Despite The BRICS founding members being co-equal partners, immediately after the announcement was made, China unilaterally seized control[l].
- Chinese and Russian government officials openly stated The BRICS would issue a new currency to devalue the dollar and the Euro, which would permanently cripple the IMF and WB[li]. The IMF and WB have long stood as “pillars of the world’s economic system”[lii].
- China and Russia issued multiple statements that they would call for repayment of their portion of the United States National Debt[liii].
Caption: “On November 14, 2014 “600,000 Chinese citizens assembled in Tiananmen Square today to watch the U.S. debt clock mounted above the Forbidden City reach the landmark sum of $18 trillion dollars… While most revelers left shortly after the rollover, an estimated 100,000 reportedly decided to just wait around in the square until the clock struck $19 trillion[liv].”
- Every country in which ISIS has an established territorial presence, including Iraq and Syria, indicated they would be looking to The BRICS for funding[lv].
To date, the July 2014 Fortaleza Agreement, a condition precedent for The BRICS to become operational, has yet to be signed, despite fervent requests by Brazil[lvi]. Despite The BRICS being cited as a sister to the AIIB, it has all but fallen off the front pages.[lvii]
If “The BRICS served notice that they are now an economic alliance that poses a challenge to the global status quo” with “decidedly nationalist goals of enhancing their own clout vis-a-vis the traditional centers of global economic, political, and military power[lviii]”, then the “notice” the AIIB served the global community was of an apocalyptic threat to overall global stability and security.
China set a March 31st deadline for countries to commit as Prospective Founding Members (PFM) of the AIIB. Prior to that time, warning bells were sounded.
- The U.S. warned the global community that the AIIB could undermine the IMF[lix].
- As with The BRICS, controversy immediately ensued over China’s unilateral assumption of power by retaining sole veto power over AIIB decisions. Due to resistance from many of the countries China was courting, China issued a statement that only facially appeared to resolve the exclusive control issue:
China has offered to forgo veto power at a new Beijing-led development bank, in a proposal that helped attract European countries to break with Washington and line up as founding members.
Negotiations are still taking place over how the bank will be run and how its board will be structured. Beijing still is likely to have the upper hand, even without veto power, over major decisions, said people involved in the discussions. That is likely to fuel concerns—expressed by the U.S., India and others—that the bank will ultimately be a tool of Chinese foreign policy (Emphasis Added)[lx].
- Robert Kahn, Steven A. Tananbaum Senior Fellow for International Economics, flat-out stated that, “[T]he AIIB is a challenge to the existing global economic order[lxi].”
The warnings were not heeded. As of April 2nd, the AIIB had 33 Prospective Founding Members (PFM). The first Western nations to sign on were Great Britain and France, no doubt keen on preserving their seats on the UNSC[lxii]. An additional 21 countries and regions have applied to the AIIB for PFM. The AIIB PRM and potential member states now includes most, if not all 28 European Union members[lxiii].
The U.S. is the only major power and permanent UNSC member that declined AIIB membership. U.S. foreign and fiscal policy was harshly criticized during the ‘open enrollment period’. Mr. Kahn disagreed, stating, “I have a great deal of concern about the consequences of heading down the path toward membership…The best course for the United States is to back away from opposition to the AIIB, allow others to join, and let the bank rise or fall on its own merits[lxiv].” This is precisely what the Obama Administration did, with its refusal premised upon China’s lack of transparency, environmental safeguards and procurement practices.
The Obama Administration recognized the existence of a further imminent threat to the U.S. financial stability based on the high level of foreign ownership of U.S. financial assets, including nationally chartered banking associations:
“The much-discussed “flight to safety,” which is presumed to underpin the dollar, largely reflects the huge policy-driven demand for dollar reserves from emerging-market central banks, rather than the preferences of private sector investors[lxvi].”
“If global powers want to achieve their foreign policy objectives, they are going to have to earn the support of the people beyond their borders[lxvii].” Two qualities uniformly define excellence in leadership:
Truly authentic leaders are able to build trust and strong relationships. If those relationships are about mutual benefit, you’ll be able to deal with conflict and difficult situations when the going gets tough. You’ll be able to build high-performance teams that are engaged and able to deliver…[lxviii].”
President Obama’s efficacy as a world leader is statistically supported; whereas the Chinese and Russian governments are not holders of the global community’s public trust:
V. People’s Republic of China: A Lack of Trust
A. The House of Cards
Based on its historical performance and by the numbers, Chinese President Xi Jinping and his administration have failed to demonstrate even marginal leadership for its citizens.
- China ranked 100 out of the 175 countries on the 2014 Corruption Perception Index statistical analysis of corruption impact on the lives of citizens[lxx].
- China has failed to provide, let alone protect, the human rights of its own citizens.
- “China remains an authoritarian state, one that systematically curbs fundamental rights, including freedom of expression, association, assembly, and religion, when their exercise is perceived to threaten one-party rule.…authorities have also unleashed an extraordinary assault on basic human rights and their defenders with a ferocity unseen in recent years—an alarming sign given that the current leadership will likely remain in power through 2023[lxxi].”
- “The government targets activists and their family members for harassment, arbitrary detention, legally baseless imprisonment, torture, and denial of access to adequate medical treatment. It has also significantly narrowed space for the press and the Internet, further limiting opportunities for citizens to press for much-needed reforms[lxxii].”
- In 2014, China jailed numerous journalists and scholars who advocated on behalf of disenfranchised and marginalized populations, and squelched the peaceful Hong Kong protests calling for some semblance of a democratic process to elect its local leadership[lxxiii].
- China has engaged in genocide and ethnic cleansing of Muslims, especially those not of Levant descent, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region[lxxiv]. Levant descent refers to the region of origin. Heralding originally from a large geographical area, including the tip of the Arabian Peninsula, they subscribe to many religious ideologies, including Islam and Judaism. Individuals not of Levant descent are the same population targeted in Turkey by President Erdogan, by Russia in the Ukraine and by ISIS around the world[lxxv].
- China has persecuted the Tibetan population by engaging in both genocide and ethnic cleansing[lxxvi].
- Overall, “…there is an edge to the message. Stability and vigilance against any inkling of separatism are mantras of Beijing’s one-party authoritarian state. Religion — particularly the Buddhism of Tibetans and the Islam of Uighurs in the neighboring restive region of Xinjiang — have long posed an implicit threat to Communist party ideology. Chen’s insistence on reverence for “scientific culture” is Beijing’s way of saying minority religious practices need to be better controlled[lxxvii].”
- Despite being a permanent member of UNSC, charged with enforcing the U.N.’s Charter, China is the only country not reporting child labor statistics to UNICEF[lxxviii]. A private estimation is as follows:
- While the standard of living for Chinese citizens has increased, it fails to approximate the Western countries.
- “Although wages are higher, they are too low to live comfortably. The often demonstrations and strikes in China cause citizens to worry about their country’s political and economic stability…For the 88 million farmers who migrated to cities, wages are extremely low. The average wage for an unskilled worker in 2004 was between $58 and $74 a month. Many of these workers lacked health insurance, job security, and power to change working conditions. Chinese factory laborers are paid 64 cents an hour, including wages and social insurance. This average includes more than 70 million suburban and rural factory workers are paid 45 cents per hour[lxxx].”
- While lower Chinese energy consumption creates the illusion that China has a proactive conservation program, the reality is that it has not provided critical infrastructure for its own citizens to the detriment of their health.
- “China is shrouded by toxic pollution, making its cities appear almost apocalyptic. Benedikt Partenheimer turns his lens on the unsettling veil of smog in his series Particulate Matter.
- The title is another name for particle pollution, a dangerous mixture of acids, metals, and other toxins that can infiltrate the lungs and even the bloodstream. Seven million people died from air pollution worldwide in 2012, and the World Health Organization calls it the world’s single biggest environmental health threat. Many of those at risk live in Asia, and the Chinese government publishes live updates on current air pollution across the country[lxxxii].”
- “China is facing a big urbanization challenge. Rapid economic growth and inefficient use of natural resources lead to excessive pollution and rapid depletion of China’s natural resources. Water scarcity, especially in the north‐eastern part of the country, already is a big problem. The Chinese government has formulated policies and legislation to protect the environment and to produce a more sustainable growth, but implementation is lagging[lxxxiii].”
- A subsequent research paper arrived at similar conclusions: “[E]nvironmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life…Examples of important measures include: adjustment of economic structure, reform of energy policy, development of environmental industry, pollution prevention and ecological conservation, capacity building, and international cooperation and public participation[lxxxiv].”
China has abjectly failed to provide infrastructure for its own citizens. Nothing suggests that, under the auspice of the AIIB or as an UNSC permanent member, that China will do more for other underdeveloped nations[lxxxv]. Chinese leadership is no more than a house of cards. Like all houses constructed of cards, it will eventually collapse.
B. China’s Global Leadership: A Case of the ‘Emperor’s New Clothes’
China has not proven itself a world leader:
- China, having exercised its UNSC veto to preclude Palestine from being recognized as member nation, and the on-going genocide within its borders, leaves no doubt that China will continue to veto any positive decisions rendered by the ICJ as to incidents of genocide and ethnic cleansing occurring in Serbia, Croatia[lxxxvi], Russia, Israel, Turkey[lxxxvii] and elsewhere by both governments and ISIS.
- “With over 1.3 billion citizens and a fast-growing economy, China’s thirst for energy is rapacious. China has become the world’s largest energy consumer and producer and will shortly overtake the U.S. as the largest importer of oil on the planet, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.”
- Lacking a natural gas infrastructure, China has overtly used its regional power to exploit the natural resources of neighboring countries, including impoverished Myanmar or Burma[lxxxviii]. Russia’s vast natural resources and weapons industry are the only reasons it still has a seat at the table[lxxxix].
- After The BRICS was announced on July 17, 2014, China commenced a pattern and practice targeted at the other four founding members[xc]. There is nothing to suggest that it will handle leadership of the AIIB any differently.
VI. An Indirect Attack on Global Peacekeeping Missions
- China’s historical lack of involvement in peacekeeping missions continued up until the time initial news stories about The BRICS and the AIIB appeared.
- The single incident of China proactively engaging in the fight against ISIS was undertaken in Iraq without aligning with allied forces and for the sole reason that it sought to protect its interest in Iraqi oil. “Beijing has volunteered to assist with airstrikes, though it will not join the US-led coalition against ISIS… China’s offer is a step away from its official policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, although it does sell weapons to many other nations… China is the biggest foreign investor in Iraq’s oil industry, and will lose billions if the Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS) manages to take over the country’s oil fields. The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has already had to abandon its oilfields in Syria.)[xci].”
- The AIIB has been joined by the majority of the United States allies, including the 28 NATO member nations and other allies, such as Australia and South Korea[xcii].
- Norwegian NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg has engaged leadership with member nations as each one considered or committed to becoming an AIIB PFM[xciii]. For instance, on March 28, 2015, Great Britain became an AIIB PFM. Just days prior, on March 20, 2015, Mr. Stoltenberg met leaders, including Great Britain, at the Brussels Forum Conference, afterwards sending tweets to confirm solidarity[xciv].
- “NATO does not recognize the so-called treaty on alliance and integration signed between the South Ossetia region of Georgia and Russia[xcv].” Given the Chinese-Russian alliance, it is unclear as to the impact on NATO peacekeeping missions in the Ukraine[xcvi], in where there is both armed conflict and where the Jewish population is and has been subjected to long-term genocide by Russia[xcvii].
There is no doubt that Chinese leadership will negatively impact the smooth continuation of cooperative peacekeeping missions around the world.
China, having divided the major economic powers and institutions, has created an imminent threat to the continuation of existing global leadership. It is a critical and highly volatile situation. Our world is in a state of abysmal crisis.
Foreign policy analyst Jean-Pierre Lehmann explained the potential apocalyptic situation:
Whether China achieves the aim of being the first ever great power to rise peacefully remains to be seen. It is the key question of the 21st century, the answer to which may determine whether the world will fall into a cataclysmic third world war or whether the pattern will be broken and a new 21st century global paradigm of enhanced peace and prosperity emerges[xcviii]
The solution is a new world order of governance[xcix]. This is not achieved by dismantling the United Nations because it is “At the heart of the rules-based system”, stated Mr. Annan. He explained that, “[I]nstead of trying to start all over again, dismantling institutions and laws painstakingly crafted over the decades, we have to see the current global context as an opportunity to improve the existing world order.”
Mr. Ki-moon concurred:
It may seem as if the world is falling apart, as crises pile up and disease spreads. But leadership is precisely about finding the seeds of hope and nurturing them into something bigger. That is our duty. That is my call to you today[c].
In a unparallel Papal move, it was announced that Pope Francis, during a September 2015 visit to the U.S. will “…use his critique of the current global economic order to challenge his audience on the role of government in alleviating inequality as well as on immigration and climate change… [Pope] Francis’ view on the global economy, say Catholic theologians, is deeply rooted in Catholic social justice teaching that demands care for society’s most vulnerable to promote the common good… the pope will likely further emphasize that the United States “has a very important role to play in shaping international economic policy in ways that could work to alleviate and advance further the reduction of poverty worldwide[ci].”
It is, in fact, the U.S. that remains the last major world power and also a UNSC member that is standing behind the existing governance of the U.N.[cii]. In order amend the U.N. Charter, votes are required at least seven UNSC permanent members and 97 of 193 member nations comprising the General Assembly.
Out of the 15 UNSC members, only seven are neither AIIB PFM nor potential AIIB members. They are the United States, Angola, Chad, Chile, New Zealand, Nigeria, and Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of); of which not one is an E.U. or NATO member nation.
Fortunately, commitments made to the AIIB are not yet binding. It has never been more imperative that leadership around the world re-evaluate their fiscal and foreign policies, and remember that we ONE.
About the Author
Cynthia M. Lardner holds a journalism degree, is a licensed attorney and was trained as a clinical therapist. Her foreign affairs philosophy is to collectively influence conscious global thinking understanding that everything and everyone is subject to change given the right circumstances.
[i] “Russian Climate Plan Boosts Industrial World Cover to Almost 80%:”m April 1, 2015, UNFCC, UN Doc, as found on the www at http://newsroom.unfccc.int/unfccc-newsroom/russian-climate-plan-boosts-industrial-world-cover-to-almost-80/ as retrived on April 1, 2015, on Google Plus from @UNFCCC Newsroom: http://ow.ly/L73bR.
[ii] Doyle, A., UN sets modest hopes for pledges at 2015 Paris Summit, Rueters, December 12, 2014, as found on the www at http://mobile.reuters.com/article/idUSKCN0JH2Q320141203?irpc=932.
[iv] Member Countries, The World Bank, as found on the www at http://www.worldbank.org/en/about/leadership/members.
[v] Annan, Kofi, “Kofi Annan: Leaders in Davos must act now to confront global issues’’, January 21, 2015, CNN, as found on the www at http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/21/opinion/kofi-annan-davos-op-ed/. See also Annan, Kofi, “The New World Disorder: Challenges for the UN in the 21st Century”, Andrew Carnegie Distinguished Lecture on Conflict Prevention, October 23, 2014, as found on the www at http://kofiannanfoundation.org/newsroom/speeches/2014/10/new-world-disorder-challenges-un-21st-century.
[vi] Barman, Arijit, “WEF 2015: The risk of deglobalization is the biggest economic risk the world faces, says Espen Barth Edie, MD, Head of Centre for Global Strategies”, January 20, 2015, Economic Times, as found on the www at http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-01-20/news/58267724_1_wef-inequality-globalization. (Espen Barth Edie is Managing Director and Head of Centre for Global Strategies. He is a former Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defence of Norway and, for the last ten years, he has authored the World Economic Forum’s Global Risk Report.).
[viii] Solon, Pablo, “’Deglobalization’ Is the Way to Reduce Inequality”, May 18, 2014, Huffington Post, as found on the www at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/pablo-erick-solon-romero-oroza/deglobalization-is-the-globalization_b_4985403.html.
[ix] Ethiopia presents a rich example of how one of the most impoverished and underdeveloped nations is bearing the burden of providing for not only its citizens but for three-quarter of a million refugees.
“Owing to its geographical location and to geopolitical developments, Ethiopia is likely to receive more people seeking refuge from neighbouring countries in 2015 and beyond. The Government maintains an open-door-policy and continues to allow humanitarian access and protection to those seeking refuge on its territory.
Ethiopia received around 200,000 new arrivals, mostly from South Sudan, between January and August 2014. More than 630,000 refugees are accommodated, mainly in camps, throughout the country. The Government allocated land for the 23 camps around Assosa, Dollo Ado, Gambella, Jijiga, Semera and Shire and provides police presence at those locations.
Funding shortfalls in 2015 would seriously compromise the well-being of people of concern at several levels, particularly their health and the protection of children and women against exploitation or abuse. Secondary movements and the trafficking phenomenon are likely to increase needs, as will, the burden on host communities, with the risk of a reduction in asylum space in Ethiopia.” “2015 UNHCR country operations profile – Ethiopia, UNHCR”, as found on the www at http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e483986.html.
See also Tekle, Tesfa-Alem, “East Africa: UNHCR – East African Region a Major Source of Refugees”, January 8, 2015, Sudan Tribune, as found on the www at http://allafrica.com/stories/201501120846.html (Ethiopia is sheltering 588,800 Afghan refugees.); “Ethiopia: IOM Assisting With Increased Numbers Eritrean Refugees in Ethiopia”, January 21, 2015, as found on the www at http://allafrica.com/stories/201501220051.html (Ethiopian is hosting more than 76,000 Eritrean refugees, with new monthly arrivals totally 2,000-2,500.); “South Sudan Situation”, UNHCR, December 15, 2013, UN Doc., as found on the www at http://data.unhcr.org/SouthSudan/country.php?id=65 (Refugees from South Sudan in Ethiopia total 258,294).
Lack of Sustainable Infrastructure
Ethiopia lacks critically needed infrastructure. The various arms of the United Nations, NGOs, and private foundations have all endeavored to alleviate this humanitarian crisis. Tekle, Tesfa-Alem, Id.
“Reflecting the lack of progress in structural and institutional reforms, Ethiopia continues to underperform in many areas critical to advancing overall economic freedom. The quality and efficiency of government services have been poor and are further undermined by the weak rule of law and pervasive corruption.” Income is $1,191 per capita and inflation has hovered at close to 23%. “Index of Economic Freedom Index,” Heritage Foundation, 2014, as found on the www at http://www.heritage.org/index/country/ethiopia.
Two-thirds of Ethiopians have no electricity. Ethiopians with electricity suffer frequent blackouts. Even though there is change, it is inadequate. See “The leading Israeli developer of solar-biogas hybrid power technology, AORA, will be the first to provide solar-biogas hybrid power solutions for rural communities in Ethiopia.” “Israeli Solar Power Will Light Up Ethiopia,” January 15, 2015, Aldemeiner, as found on the www at http://www.algemeiner.com/2015/01/19/israeli-solar-power-technology-will-light-up-ethiopia/.
Ethiopians have not been provided the infrastructure to engage in agricultural activities sufficient even for their own sustenance. “With African agriculture, those barriers include roads that are too narrow to transport grain quickly, lack of knowledge about how crops fare best in some places and a dearth of basic information — on market prices, for instance — that hampers farmers,” reflected Bill Gates. To enable African governments, such as Ethiopia, to develop the infrastructure necessary to be self-sustaining, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, best known for its efforts to reduce disease in Africa, recently provided over $3 billion in grants aimed at improving African agriculture, including access to financing denied by developed nations. Leonhardht, David, “Africa’s Economy Is Rising. Now What Happens to Its Food?” January 22, 2015, New York Times, as found on the www at http://mobile.nytimes.com/2015/01/22/upshot/africas-economy-is-rising-now-what-happens-to-its-food.html?_r=0&referrer. See also Dockins, Pamela, “US, Ethiopia Partner to Empower Women”, December 05, 2014, Voice of America, as found on the www at http://m.voanews.com/a/us-ethiopia-partner-to-empower-women/2547258.html (The U.S. awarded $15,000 grants to five U.S. universities partnering with Ethiopian schools on research and development projects, training Ethiopian women how to grow crops throughout the year to address food insecurity.).
Ethiopians lack access to basic health care, a human right. Again, there are many entities involved but the efforts have not been sufficient to meet the need. See eg Fortune, Addis, “Ethiopia: Nation Falls Short of MDGs,” January 18, 2015, All Africa, as found on the www at http://allafrica.com/stories/201501200351.html (“In 1990, the under-five mortality rate in Ethiopia was one of the highest in the world at 204/1,000 live births; by 2012, this rate had been slashed to 68/1,000 live births. The expansion of health infrastructure and the successful implementation of Health Extension Package (HEP) are believed to have contributed to the achievement of the goal, according to UNDP Ethiopia.”); “KENT: Lions Club working to eradicate measles”, January 21, 2015, The Telegraph, as found on the www at http://www.macon.com/2015/01/21/3539800/kent-lions-club-working-to-eradicate.html (“The Lions Club initiative to help wipe measles off the face of the Earth started four years after receiving a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation. That grant was specific to four countries — Ethiopia, Mali, Nigeria and Madagascar. Forty-one million children were vaccinated within 12 months.” The initial challenge grant of $5 million dollars in 2001 mushroomed into $10 million dollars used to vaccinate over 150 million children.); and Schwitek Jessica, “Rotary group heads to Ethiopia to help end polio,” October 20, 2014, as found on the www at http://www.thegoldenstar.net/ourtown/279850882.html?mobile=true.
The Ethiopian government, as desperate as its citizen, is beleaguered by corruption, as are some of the most trusted institutional NGOs. See Chavkin, Sasha, “Leaked Report Says World Bank Violated its Own Rules in Ethiopia”, Global Research, Center for Research on Globalization, January 20, 2015, as found on the www at http://www.globalresearch.ca/leaked-report-says-world-bank-violated-its-own-rules-in-ethiopia/5426465.).
Without adequate funding, Ethiopian government is susceptible to the politics of other countries, even when those politics conflict with its own philosophy of governance. See “Erdoğan’s Africa tour to kick off with Ethiopia visit,” Today’s Zamem, January 19, 2015, as found on the www http://mobile.todayszaman.com/diplomacy_erdogans-africa-tour-to-kick-off-with-ethiopia-visit_370277.html (Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan visited Ethiopia last week having “…pointed out that Turkey has close historical and cultural ties with the countries of the Horn of Africa and that these countries are the strategic gateways to Middle Eastern and world markets.”); and Standard, Addis, Ethiopia: Research Project On Ethiopia’s Foreign Policy Making Launched, January 15, 2015, as found on the www at http://allafrica.com/stories/201501190523.html
[ix] “Crime and Corruption Top Problems in Emerging and Developing Countries”, Global Attitudes Project, Pew Research, November 6, 2014, as found on the www at http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/11/06/crime-and-corruption-top-problems-in-emerging-and-developing-countries/ (Crime and corruption, common scourges of modern societies, top the list of problems cited by publics in emerging and developing nations. A median of 83% of people across 34 emerging and developing economies say crime is a very big problem in their country, and 76% say the same about corrupt political leaders.).See also Vision of Humanity, Institute for Economics and Peace also as found on the www at http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#/page/indexes/terrorism-index (“A median of 76% across 34 countries say corrupt political leaders are a very big problem in their country. This comprises the top spot in 10 of the countries surveyed, including in China, where 54% say corrupt officials are a big concern. Africans are far and away the most concerned about corruption (a median of 85%), but this issue also resonates broadly in other regions, including Eastern Europe. In Russia and Ukraine, 65% and 73% respectively cite corrupt political leaders as a top problem.”).
[ix] Steve Killelea is the Founder & Executive Chairman of Integrated Research Ltd; The Charitable Foundation; and Institute for Economics and Peace. “In 2007 Steve founded the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), an international think tank dedicated to building a greater understanding of the interconnection between business, peace and economics with particular emphasis on the economic benefits of peace. IEP’s ground-breaking research includes the Global Peace Index, the world’s leading measure of peacefulness. Steve’s founding of IEP was recognized as one of the 50 most impactful philanthropic gifts in Australia’s history.” http://economicsandpeace.org/about-us/our-leadership/steve-killelea,
[x] Calamur, K., “India And Other BRIC Economies Now Facing Headwinds”, August 21, 2013, NPR, as found on the www at http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2013/08/21/214149152/india-and-other-bric-economies-now-facing-headwinds?sc=17&f=&utm_source=iosnewsapp&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=app . See also “Yen Holds Surge on Haven Demand; Gold Near Six-Week High”, December 10, 2014, Bloomberg, as found on the www at http://www.24hgold.com/english/Newsflow-yen-holds-surge-on-haven-demand-gold-near-six-week-high.aspx?id=6104428126H11690, republished on the www at http://mobile.businessweek.com/news/2014-12-09/yen-holds-surge-on-haven-demand-gold-near-six-week-high.
[xi] “UNSC undermines authority of General Assembly: India”, March 20, 2015, Zee News, as found on the www at http://zeenews.india.com/news/india/unsc-undermines-authority-of-general-assembly-india_1564668.html (“Over the years, it has been amply demonstrated that the prerogatives and authority of the General Assembly have been undermined by the Security Council,” said Devesh Uttam, First Secretary at the Indian Mission to the UN…. Uttam said India believes the 193-member General Assembly can be revitalised only when its position as the chief deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN is respected in letter and spirit and it is relevant to contemporary realities. “The Assembly should take the lead in setting the global agenda and restoring the centrality of the United Nations in formulating multilateral approaches to resolve transnational issues. In particular, revitalisation must restore the primacy of the UN in development matters.””).
[xii] Ng, Teddy, “India and Russia back China’s call for ‘new world order’: Foreign ministers of two nations meet Chinese counterpart in Beijing as China ‘seeks to counterbalance US influence’ in the Asia-Pacific”, February 3, 2015, South China Daily Post, as found on the www at http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1699900/india-russia-back-call-new-world-order; Krishnan, Ananth, “China and Russia back India for seat on UN Security Council”, February 2, 2015, The Daily Mail India, as found on the www at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/indiahome/indianews/article-2937182/China-Russia-India-seat-security-council.html#ixzz3QhdEzHPy. Contra Horvath, Robert, “Vladimir Putin’s apologists spread dangerous message”, January 29, 2015 as found on the www at http://www.theage.com.au/comment/vladimir-putins-apologists-spread-dangerous-message-20150129-130snb.html (Russian President Vladmir Putin has been accused of creating a “hurricane of hatred” that has laid to waste diplomatic relations previously beneficial to the Russian people. “Once courted by Western leaders as “a perfect democrat”, Putin now stands exposed as a dictator who has wrecked his own country’s democratic institutions, violated international treaties, invaded a neighbouring state, and fomented a civil war that has claimed thousands of lives. Author Dr Robert Horvath is an ARC research fellow at La Trobe University. He is the author of Putin’s Preventive Counter-Revolution (Routledge, 2013).).
[xiii] U.N. Charter art. 1, para.1-4.
[xiv] U.N. Charter art. 23, para.2.; and S.C.Res.1325, ¶ 8, U.N.Doc.S/RES/1325 (Oct. 31, 2000) (created and governs the UN Security Council). Currently, the 10 elected member nations:
New Zealand (2016)
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (2016)
“More than 60 United Nations Member States have never been Members of the Security Council.” United Nations Security Council, Current Members, UN Doc, as found on the www at http://www.un.org/en/sc/members/.
[xv] U.N. Charter art. 4, para.3; S.C.Res.1325, ¶ 8, U.N.Doc.S/RES/1325 (Oct. 31, 2000).
[xvi] U.N. Charter art. 24, para.1.
[xvii] U.N. Charter art. 26.
[xviii] U.N. Charter art. 4, para.2.
[xix] U.N. Charter art. 92, para.2; Cadman, Tony, “Serbia, Croatia and the ‘crime of crimes’”, February 5, 2015, MWC News, as found on the www at http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/49551-serbia-croatia.html (On February 3rd, the ICJ dismissed Croatia’s claim and Serbia’s counter-claim as to Balkan War genocide in the 1990s which claimed hundreds of thousands of innocent lives. The decision is final and binding unless vetoed by the UNSC, of Russia and China are permanent member.) Sparow, Andrew, “Government takes over Rotherham council after sex abuse failings – as it happened, February 4, 2015, The Guardian, as found on the www at http://www.theguardian.com/politics/blog/live/2015/feb/04/labour-faces-twin-blows-from-ashcroft-poll-and-business-criticism-politics-live-blog.
[xx] U.N. Charter, Introductory Note. (“The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.”)
[xxi] Cadman, Tony, Infra Endnote No. xix. (“The International Court of Justice (ICJ), the UN’s judicial branch “…is a curious institution. It resolves disputes between states that are ostensibly political… Courts and tribunals are supposedly beyond politics and its influence…It is difficult to understand the jurisdiction of international courts and tribunals, particularly so when they issue controversial decisions that appear to be based more on political considerations than legal reasoning… The ICJ must remember that first and foremost it is an institution of justice”, with a “moral obligation to recognize” to acts of genocide and ethnic cleansing even though “Genocide is the most difficult crime to prove, and although it is often referred to as ‘the crime of crimes’ given its nature, the use of the word is often politicised and thus the courts that rule on such issues are forced to take political considerations into account.” The other reality is that the UNSC’s five permanent members have veto power over ICJ rulings.).
[xxii] U.N. Charter art. 1, para.1-4.
[xxiii] “What is peacekeeping? United Nations Peacekeeping helps countries torn by conflict create conditions for lasting peace”, United Nations, as found on the www at http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/peacekeeping.shtml (“Success is never guaranteed, because UN Peacekeeping almost by definition goes to the most physically and politically difficult environments. However, we have built up a demonstrable record of success over our 60 years of existence, including winning the Nobel Peace Prize. Peacekeeping has always been highly dynamic and has evolved in the face of new challenges. Recently, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon established a 17-member High-level Independent Panel on UN Peace Operations to make a comprehensive assessment of the state of UN peace operations today, and the emerging needs of the future.”),
[xxiv] Barman, Arijit, Infra, Endnote No vi.
[xxv] “UN security council rejects Palestinian statehood bid”, December 30, 2014, The Guardian, as found on the www at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/30/un-security-council-rejects-palestinian-statehood-bid (“Defeated resolution called for end to Israeli occupation within three years and for independent state of Palestine to be established within 1967 borders… and set a 31 December, 2017 deadline for Israel’s occupation to end”.).
[xxvi] Tawil, Bassam, “Obama Declares War on Israel”, March 24, 2015, Gatestone Institute, as found on the www at http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/5435/obama-war-israel; Liasson, Mara, “Netanyahu Reveals Aversion To 2-State Solution, White House Says”, March 24, 2015, NPR, as found on the www at http://www.npr.org/2015/03/24/395001586/netanyahu-reveals-aversion-to-2-state-solution-white-house-says?sc=17?f=1004&utm_source=iosnewsapp&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=app; Montanaro, Domenico, “Obama Chief Of Staff: Israel’s 50-Year ‘Occupation’ Must End”, March 23, 2015, as found on the www at http://www.npr.org/blogs/itsallpolitics/2015/03/23/394911290/obama-chief-of-staff-israels-50-year-occupation-must-end?sc=17?f=1001&utm_source=iosnewsapp&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=app; Casey, Nicholas, and Lee, Carol E., “Israel’s Netanyahu Reverses Position on Palestinian State Again: Conditions for one today are not achievable, prime minister says”, March 19, 2015, Wall Street Journal, as found on the www at http://www.wsj.com/articles/abbas-two-state-solution-no-longer-possible-1426776658?cb=logged0.33836652198806405; “Ban Ki-moon urges new Israeli government to negotiate peace deal, create Palestinian state”, March 18, 2015, CTV News, as found on the www at http://www.ctvnews.ca/world/ban-ki-moon-urges-new-israeli-government-to-negotiate-peace-deal-create-palestinian-state-1.2286910; and Lee, Carol, E., and Mitnick, J., “U.S. to ‘Re-Evaluate’ Mideast Peace Strategy: Obama and Netanyahu differ starkly on Iran and Middle East peace policy”, March 18, 2015, Wall Street Journal, as found on the www at http://www.wsj.com/articles/tension-between-u-s-israel-likely-to-continue-after-netanyahus-re-election-1426690031.
[xxvii] Brayman, Lolita, “How ICC membership could revive Palestinian statehood at the UN”, March 25, 2015, 972 Mag, as found on the www at http://972mag.com/how-icc-membership-could-revive-palestinian-statehood-at-un/104842/ (Article 16 of the Rome Statute gives the Security Council the power to defer any ICC investigation for up to a year, which can be renewed once a year. In order to exercise that authority, the UNSC would need to demonstrate that further ICC involvement would impede rather than facilitate diplomatic progress. The Council has never used its Article 16 power but the political stakes in Palestine are much higher than in any previous situation… An act of this magnitude would hinge on whether an ICC investigation would really be an obstacle to the peace process… Even if Israel approves of an UN resolution, Security Council deferrals of ICC probes are not permanent. The UNSC could continue to use the ICC as leverage and hold the threat of prosecutions over Israel’s head in a year if there is no movement with negotiations. Lolita Brayman is a lawyer and former editor at Haaretz.com with an M.A. in conflict resolution and mediation from Tel Aviv University.).
[xxviii] Abunimah, Ali, “Is UN providing Israel with cover for killing Gaza’s children?”, March 19, 2015, as found on the www at http://electronicintifada.net/blogs/ali-abunimah/un-providing-israel-cover-killing-gazas-children (“Palestinian civil society activists have called for the resignation of UN officials implicated in sabotaging moves to have Israel’s army included on a UN list of serious violators of children’s rights.”).
[xxx] UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, 217 A (III), available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3712c.html [accessed 5 April 2015] (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was drafted by the UN Commission on Human Rights in 1947 and 1948 and adopted by the U.N. General Assembly on December 10, 1948. Article 13 states that “Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.” The legal and equitable remedy for those who were deported or forcibly displaced is restoration of the right to return to their homelands.).
[xxxi] Rothstein, Edward, “As Wagner illustrates, anti-Semitism is more than a mere dislike of Jews—it’s a metaphysical condition that shapes the very way the world is perceived”, January 12, 2014, Mosaic, as found on the www at http://mosaicmagazine.com/response/2015/01/something-more-profound-than-prejudice/.
[xxxii] Tawil, Bassam, “Obama Declares War on Israel”, March 24, 2015, Gatestone Institute, as found on the www at http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/5435/obama-war-israel
[xxxiii] Id. (“This is exactly the kind of news they have been waiting to hear for so many years — that the U.S. no longer considers Israel its main strategic ally in the Middle East.”); Torossian, R., “Op-Ed: So Al Jazeera Claims Israel Commits Ethnic Cleansing”, December 14, 2014, Arutz Sheva, as found on the www at http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/16152#.VKFiCtoIAA (“Consider Al-Jazeera’s take on Ethnic Cleansing, and learn that “In the Palestinian context, ethnic cleansing is comprised of three stages. The first is to uproot people from their homes by force. The second stage is to erase their history and connection to the land. The third stage is to make sure they will never return to the land they once called home. The Zionist movement in historic Palestine used ethnic cleansing to target Palestinians in 1948-1950. Israel continues to commit ethnic cleansing against Palestinians today.”); “Yasser Arafat’s Widow: Time to Recognize Israel and Condemn Hamas” November 13, 2014, Brietbart, as found on the www at http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2014/11/13/arafat-s-wife-time-to-recognize-israel-condemn-hamas/ (Suha Arafat, Yasser Arafat’s widow and a Christian, stated, “Hamas has taken the people in the Gaza Strip as hostages. When I see what is happening in Gaza, its just genocide. This generation grew up with violence, without education, with only a hope of emigrating.”); Cashman, G., “President Rivlin: Time to admit that Israel is a sick society that needs treatment”, October 19, 2014, The Jerusalem Post, as found on the www at http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Politics-And-Diplomacy/President-Rivlin-Time-to-admit-that-Israel-is-a-sick-society-that-needs-treatment-379223p; Ethnic Cleansing, Seattle Mideast Awareness Project, as found on the www at http://www.seamac.org/EthnicCleansing.htm (“In 1948, the State of Israel created a Jewish majority by destroying approximately 500 Palestinian towns and driving over 700,000 Palestinians out of their homeland. Ethnic cleansing continues today in the form of expulsions and Jewish-only settlements. Ethnic cleansing has been an ongoing practice of the Israeli state. It expelled another 200,000 Palestinians from the West Bank during the 1967 Six-Day War, and it continues to ethnically cleanse parts of the West Bank and Jerusalem to make way for illegal Jewish settlements that are prohibited by the Fourth Geneva Convention. Those settlements, the building of a Separation Wall, home demolitions based on discriminatory enforcement of building codes, and the harshness of the Occupation have all resulted in making life economically, socially, and politically so difficult that thousands of Palestinians have had to relocate. According to a lengthy report by Human Rights Watch, “Separate and Unequal,” once-thriving Palestinian towns in the West Bank now barely support any industry and their populations have dwindled drastically. To this day Israel consistently refuses the right of return to any of the refugees or their descendants, who number in their millions and are the oldest and longest-suffering refugee population in the world. By any definition, this is ethnic cleansing.”).
[xxxiv] Moussa, A., “The Islamic State and the Jewish State”, October 17, 2014, Counterpunch, as found on the www at http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/10/17/the-islamic-state-and-the-jewish-state/.
[xxxv] Shwayder, Maya, and Wilner, Michael,“UN holds first conference on anti-Semitism”, January 22, 2015, The Jerusalem Post, as found on the www at http://www.jpost.com/Diaspora/UN-holds-first-conference-on-anti-Semitism-388662.
[xxxvii] Annan, Kofi, Infra, Endnote No. 1.
[xxxviii] U.N. Charter art. 108.; U.N. Charter art. 109 para.1-4.
[xxxix] “The Elders call for strengthening of the United Nations: Fit for purpose in the 21st century“, February 17, 2015, The Elders, as found on the www at http://theelders.org/article/elders-call-strengthening-united-nations.
[xl] U.N. Charter art. 2, para.1. (“The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members”).
[xli] The Elders (2015, February 18) How can the #UNSC better prevent genocide & atrocity crimes? Join our #StrongerUN debate https://www.facebook.com/theElders/photos/a.10150967736623562.426778.91380973561/10152757219283562/?type=1&theater … #R2P. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/TheElders/status/568015037253742592.
[xlii] The Elders (2015, February 17) How has the #UNSC veto abuse hindered global peace & security? Join our #StrongerUN debate: https://www.facebook.com/theElders/photos/a.10150967736623562.426778.91380973561/10152757219283562/?type=1&theater … Retrieved from https://twitter.com/TheElders/status/567711078298038272.
[xliii] Annan, Kofi [KofiAnnan](2015 March 26) We need to create a world that is #equitable and stable. #KofiAnnan. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/KofiAnnan/status/581508687728119808.
[xliv] Lee, Michael, R., “On UNSC Reform, New UfC Paper Calls for Transparency, No New Permanent Seats”, March 25, 2015, Inner City Press, as found on the www at http://www.innercitypress.com/unscreform1ufc032515.html; Swart, L., and Pace, Cile, “Changing the Composition of the Security Council: Is There a Viable Solution?”, March 1, 2015, Center for U.N. Reform, as found on the www at http://www.centerforunreform.org/?q=node/629 (Lydia Swart has been associated with the Center since 2006. She co-edited the 2007 publication Global Environmental Governance – Perspectives on the Current Debate (2007) and wrote chapters for recent publications of the Center on Revitalization of the General Assembly (2008); the Group of 77 (2010); and Security Council Reform (2013) which can be downloaded from the Center’s website.).
[xlv] “What is peacekeeping? United Nations Peacekeeping helps countries torn by conflict create conditions for lasting peace”, United Nations, UN Doc., as found on the www at http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/peacekeeping.shtml.
[xlvi] “U.N. campaigners demand a female successor to Ban”, March 11, 2015, The Japan Times, as found on the www at http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/03/11/world/u-n-campaigners-demand-a-female-successor-to-ban/.
[xlvii] Albert, Eleanor, “A Bank Too Far?”, March 17, 2015, Council on Foreign Relations, as found on the www at http://www.cfr.org/global-governance/bank-too-far/p36290.
[xlviii] “Why China is creating a new “World Bank” for Asia”, November 11, 2014, The Economist, as found on the www at http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/11/economist-explains-6.
[xlix] Desai, R., and Vreeland, J., “What the new bank of BRICS is all about”, July 17, 2014, Washington Post, as found on the www at http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/07/17/what-the-new-bank-of-brics-is-all-about/.
[l] “China calls for swift movement on BRICS development bank”, November 14, 2014, Financial Insider, as found on the www at http://www.businessinsider.com/afp-china-calls-for-swift-movement-on-brics-development-bank-2014-11.
[li] “What will happen to global economy if BRICS announce launch of new currency – Bricso?”, Voice of Russia, October 9, 2013, as found on the www at http://sputniknews.com/voiceofrussia/2013_10_09/What-will-happen-to-global-economy-if-BRICS-announce-launch-of-new-currency-Bricso-1897/.
[lii] Financial Insider, Infra Endnote No l.
[liii] China has strategically invested a staggering $17.6 trillion dollars in the U.S. national debt, making it the single largest foreign holder. Two other BRICS nations, Brasil and Russia, also own a significant portion of the U.S. debt. This is a break-down:
China $1.26 trillion or 11%
Hong Kong 1.429 billion or 1.2%
Russia 1.629 billion or 1.4%
Brasil 2.53.4 billion or 2.2%
D., Conger, C., and Clifton, J., “Top 10 Countries the U.S. Owes Money To”, July 26, 2011, How Stuff Works, as found on the www at http://people.howstuffworks.com/5-united-states-debt-holders.htm# (The grim reality is that “China’s government could… call all …of its own holdings and demand full payment of the money it lent us [the U.S] in principal plus interest “…minimally resulting in “dramatically higher interest rates and a steep devaluation of the dollar”.).
See also Amedeo, K., “Who Owns the U.S. National Debt?, The Biggest Owner Is You!”, September 22, 2014, About You, as found on the www at http://useconomy.about.com/od/monetarypolicy/f/Who-Owns-US-National-Debt.htm; Bui, Q., “Everyone The U.S. Government Owes Money To, In One Graph”, October 10, 2013, NPR News, as found on the www at http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2013/10/10/230944425/everyone-the-u-s-government-owes-money-to-in-one-graph; and Rapoza, K., “Is China’s Ownership Of U.S. Debt A National Security Threat?”, January 13, 2013, Forbes, as found on the www at http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2013/01/23/is-chinas-ownership-of-u-s-debt-a-national-security-threat/.
[liv] “Chinese Citizens Gather In Beijing Square To Watch U.S. National Debt Clock Strike $18 Trillion”, November 14, 2014, The Onion, as found on the www at http://www.theonion.com/articles/chinese-citizens-gather-in-beijing-square-to-watch,37450/.
[lv] Wood, G., “What ISIS’s Leader Really Wants”, September 1, 2014, as found on the www at http://www.newrepublic.com/article/119259/isis-history-islamic-states-new-caliphate-syria-and-iraq.
[lvi] “Brazil Hopes BRICS Members to Ratify Bank Agreement Soon”, January 25, 2015, Sputnik, as found on the www at http://sputniknews.com/business/20150128/1017435214.html
[lvii] Treni, Dmitri, “Moscow takes BRICS summit as new launch pad for global influence”, January 26, 2015, Global Times, as found on the www at http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/904034.shtml (Treni is director of the Carnegie Moscow Center); “India wants fruitful relations with both US, BRICS”, January 26, 2015, RT, as found on the www at http://rt.com/op-edge/226303-india-usa-visit-obama-relations/.
[lviii] Novosti, Ria, “BRICS should have dialogue with the West, not confrontation, say experts”, January 26, 2015, Russia and India Report, as found on the www at http://in.rbth.com/world/2015/01/26/brics_should_have_dialogue_with_the_west_not_confrontation_say_experts_41023.html.
[lix] Kirk, Donald, “China’s Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Upsets U.S., Lures U.S. Allies, Including Korea,” March 23, 2015, Forbes Asia, as found on the www at http://www.forbes.com/sites/donaldkirk/2015/03/23/chinas-asian-infrastructure-investment-bank-upsets-u-s-lures-u-s-allies-including-korea/.
[lx] Wei, Lingling, and Davis, Bob, “China Forgoes Veto Power at New Bank to Win Key European Nations’ Support: U.S. is concerned new bank would be an instrument of Beijing’s foreign policy,” March 24, 2015, Wall Street Journal, as found on the www at http://www.wsj.com/articles/china-forgoes-veto-power-at-new-bank-to-win-key-european-nations-support-1427131055?cb=logged0.41626988095231354.
[lxi] Albert, Eleanor, Infra Endnote No. xlvii.
[lxii] In the few intervening weeks between the February 2, 2015 press release that China and Russia were seeking to change the composition of the UNSC and China’s aggressive AIIB move, Great Britain, France and the U.S. shifted their foreign policy, especially as it relates to the commission of war crimes, most notably genocide. See eg Sparow, Andrew, “Government takes over Rotherham council after sex abuse failings – as it happened, February 4, 2015, The Guardian, as found on the www at http://www.theguardian.com/politics/blog/live/2015/feb/04/labour-faces-twin-blows-from-ashcroft-poll-and-business-criticism-politics-live-blogl; and “Delay to Chilcot report ‘barrier to public trust’, says Labour”, February 1, 2015, The Guardian, as found on the www at http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/feb/01/chilcot-report-delay-labour-douglas-alexander.
[lxiii] Country/Region Date of PFM approval
France 2 April 2015
Germany 1 April 2015
Italy 2 April 2015
Luxembourg 27 March 2015
New Zealand 5 January 2015
Switzerland 28 March 2015
United Kingdom 28 March 2015
Bangladesh 24 October 2014
Brunei 24 October 2014
Cambodia 24 October 2014
China 24 October 2014 (Founder)
India 24 October 2014
Indonesia 25 November 2014
Jordan 7 February 2015
Kazakhstan 24 October 2014
Kuwait 24 October 2014
Laos 24 October 2014
Malaysia 24 October 2014
Maldives 31 December 2014
Mongolia 24 October 2014
Myanmar 24 October 2014
Nepal 24 October 2014
Oman 24 October 2014
Pakistan 24 October 2014
Philippines 24 October 2014
Qatar 24 October 2014
Saudi Arabia 13 January 2015
Singapore 24 October 2014
Sri Lanka 24 October 2014
Tajikistan 13 January 2015
Thailand 24 October 2014
Uzbekistan 24 October 2014
Vietnam 24 October 2014
Country/Region Date of Pending Application
Australia 29 March 2015
Austria 27 March 2015
Brazil 28 March 2015
Denmark 28 March 2015
Egypt 30 March 2015
Finland 30 March 2015
Georgia 28 March 2015
Hong Kong December 2014
Hungary 31 March 2015
Iceland 31 March 2015
Israel 31 March 2015
Kyrgyzstan 31 March 2015
Netherlands 28 March 2015
Norway 31 March 2015
Portugal 31 March 2015
Russia 30 March 2015
South Korea 26 March 2015
Spain 27 March 2015
Sweden ` 31 March 2015
Chinese Taipei 31 March 2015
Turkey 26 March 2015
[lxiv] Albert, Eleanor, Infra Endnote No. xlvii.
[lxv] The Center for Foreign Relations released the following first-quarter 2015 findings:
- Foreign ownership of U.S. assets has increased significantly since 1945, growing especially quickly over the past two decades.
- Foreign ownership of treasuries rose 1.1 percent in the third quarter of 2014. Both private and official sector holdings increased.
- Since 1985, foreigners have consistently owned more U.S. assets than Americans own foreign assets.
- The growth in foreign ownership of treasuries has come from official buyers (i.e., foreign central banks and sovereign wealth funds.
- The foreign preference for treasury ownership had been waning over the past forty years but has returned since the crisis.
Walker, Dinah, “Quarterly Update: Foreign Ownership of U.S. Assets”, January 21, 2015, Council on Foreign Relations, as found on the www at http://www.cfr.org/united-states/quarterly-update-foreign-ownership-us-assets/p25685.
[lxviii] Murray, Kevin, “Authenticity is the secret of all strong leaders”, February 15, 2014, City A.M., as found on the www at http://www.cityam.com/1406250774/authenticity-secret-all-strong-leaders?utm_content=bufferf82a3&utm_medium=social&utm_source=linkedin.com&utm_campaign=buffer%20class=ajT%20v:shapes=%22_x0000_i1025%22%3E (Kevin Murray is chairman of The Good Relations Group and specialises in strategic communications, reputation management and leadership communications coaching. His latest book is Communicate to Inspire: A Guide for Leaders.). See also School of Global Leadership &Entrepreneurship, Regent University, as found on the www at http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/ijls/new/vol5iss2/IJLS_vol5_iss1_kalshoven_ethical_leadership.pdf. (Ethical leaders “…work transparently, clarify expectations, and communicate openly.”).
[lxix] Clifton, Jon, “U.S. Tops Other Global Leaders in Approval”, April 11, 2014, as found on the www at http://www.gallup.com/poll/168467/tops-global-leaders-approval.aspx, citing, Goldsmith, Benjamin E., and Horiuchi, Yusaku, “In Search of Soft Power: Does Foreign Public Opinion Matter for U.S. Foreign Policy?”, January 24, 2012, World Politics, Vol. 64, Issue 3, pp. 555-585., 2012, as found on the www at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1932478.
[lxx] http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview. See also Vision of Humanity, Infra Endnote No. ix (“A median of 76% across 34 countries say corrupt political leaders are a very big problem in their country. This comprises the top spot in 10 of the countries surveyed, including in China, where 54% say corrupt officials are a big concern. Africans are far and away the most concerned about corruption (a median of 85%), but this issue also resonates broadly in other regions, including Eastern Europe. In Russia and Ukraine, 65% and 73% respectively cite corrupt political leaders as a top problem.”).
[lxxi] “China”, World Report 2015, Human Rights Watch, as found on the www at https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2015/country-chapters/china.
[lxxiii] Lardner, Cynthia, “Corporatized Terror”, Game of Thrones, January 17, 2015, as found on the www at https://cynthiamlardner.wordpress.com/page/2/#_ednref19 (“As to Muslim’s not of Levant descent, the Chinese government is also engaging in scientific racism. It has severely penalized scholarly advocates belonging to a minority Muslim population of Eurasian descent in a region bordering Russia. It is no coincidence that ISIS members are Levant descendants. In addition, this past fall Ilham Tohti was convicted of “separatism” for advocating on behalf of the Uyghur people who are of Eurasian descent having Turkish roots. Mr. Tohti, 44, a member of the Uyghur PEN Center “…is an ethnically Uyghur economist, writer, and public intellectual, and is a professor at Minzu University of China in Beijing (formerly Central Nationalities University). He is one of the best-known scholars on Uyghur issues, and is a co-founder of the website Uyghur Online, which was designed to promote understanding between Uyghurs and Han Chinese. It is now blocked inside China.” Ilham Tohti, Pen America, as found on the www athttp://www.pen.org/defending-writers/ilham-tohti#.dpuf.”). See also “China jails students of Uighur scholar Ilham Tohti”, December 9, 2014, BBC News China as found on the www athttp://m.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-30390801 (The Chinese government imprisoned seven of Mr. Tohti’s students, all of Uighur descent.)(Citations omitted).
[lxxiv] Tharoor, Ishaan, “Top Chinese official in Tibet wants Buddhist temples to spread propaganda”, April 3, 2015, Washington Post, as found on the www at http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2015/04/03/top-chinese-official-in-tibet-wants-buddhist-temples-to-spread-propaganda/ (Chinese authorities in the region have embarked on a widespread crackdown on Islamic and Uighur cultural practices, including the wearing of burqas and bans even on the growing of lengthy beards.According to my colleagues, they have even embarked on an Orwellian scheme where families in parts of Xinjiang sign “de-radicalization pledges” and encourage locals to report on each other.”); “China”, World Report 2015, Infra Endnote No lxii. (“In March , at least 30 people were killed when Uighur assailants attacked people with knives at the train station in Kunming, Yunnan Province. In May, 31 people died when a busy market in Urumqi was bombed. In August, official press reports stated than approximately 100 people died in Yarkand (or Shache) County in XUAR when assailants attacked police stations, government offices, and vehicles on a road. The Chinese government has blamed “terrorist” groups for these attacks.”).
[lxxv] Moussa, A., “The Islamic State and the Jewish State”, October 17, 2014, Counterpunch, as found on the www at http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/10/17/the-islamic-state-and-the-jewish-state/ (Ahmad Moussa, a Palestinian-Canadian writer, is a Visiting Professor at the University of Duhok in the Iraq’s Kurdistan Region.).
[lxxvi] Tharoor, Ishaan, Infra Endnote No. lxxiv.
[lxxviii] “UNICEF Data: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women”, November 2014, UNICEF, as found on the www at: http://data.unicef.org/child-protection/child-labour#sthash.av2NNwSd.dpufhttp://data.unicef.org/child-protection/child-labour.
[lxxx] Burns, Monica, “Global Wage Issues”, July 17, 2006, Punahao School, as found on the www at http://iws.punahou.edu/user/JStevens/project/living_wage/, citing, www.iisg.nl/research/jvz-wages_prices.pdf; http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1094/is_4_39/ai_n9483917/pg_2; http://www.bankresearch.org/economicpolicyblog/2006/04/globalization_i.html; http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/dec2004/nf2004122_6762_db039.html;http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_13/b3977049.htm; http://www.washingtontimes.com/op-ed/20060415-091638-9341r.htm; http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/business/20060620TDY08008.htm; and http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/mar2006/gb20060309_834667.htm (The author noted the difficulty in obtaining statistical data pertaining to Chinese labor practices.)
[lxxxii] Tiecher, Jordan, G., “Peering Through the Haze of China’s Deadly Air Pollution”, April 3, 2015, Wired, as found on the www at http://www.wired.com/2015/04/benedikt-partenheimer-particulate-matter/ (Featured the photo essay of “Benedikt Partenheimer is one of six finalists in 2015Syngenta Photography Award, showing at Somerset House, London until April 10.”).
[lxxxiii] Enserink, Bert, and Koppenjan, Joop, (2007) “Public participation in China: sustainable urbanization and governance”, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 18 Iss: 4, pp.459 – 474, as found on the www at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/14777830710753848,
[lxxxiv] Zhang, Kun-min, and Wen, Zong-guo, “Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China”, Elsevier, Volume 88, Issue 4, September 2008, Pages 1249–1261, as found on the www at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479707002435.
[lxxxv] Bhagwati, Jaimini, “Jaimini Bhagwati: AIIB & BRICS Bank: The World Bank and ADB now seem to be too driven by the sensibilities of NGOs in developed countries on sustainable development issues,” March 19, 2015, Budget Standards, Business Analysis, as found on the www at http://www.business-standard.com/article/opinion/jaimini-bhagwati-aiib-brics-bank-115031901207_1.html.
[lxxxvi] Cadman, Tony, Infra Endnote No. xxi (On February 3rd, the ICJ dismissed Croatia’s claim and Serbia’s counter-claim as to Balkan War genocide in the 1990s which claimed hundreds of thousands of innocent lives. The decision final and binding unless vetoed by the UNSC of which Russia is a permanent member. The UNSC’s five permanent members have veto power over ICJ rulings on issues such as genocide, one of humanity’s most pervasive and historical war crimes.).
[lxxxvii] Bekdel, B., “Heading for a Jew-Free Turkey”, December 23 2014, Middle East Forum, as found on the www at http://www.meforum.org/4938/heading-for-a-jew-free-turkey.
[lxxxviii] Holland, Hereward, “In Myanmar, China’s Scramble for Energy Threatens Livelihoods of Villagers”, September 4, 2014, National Geographic, as found on the www at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2014/09/140905-myanmar-china-burma-drilling-oil-energy-asia-petroleum/ (“The recently completed pipelines have already begun transforming the northern part of this remote island into a 6.5-square-mile (17-square-kilometer) center of trade and commerce—a kind of little Singapore on Myanmar’s impoverished western coast.”).
[lxxxix] “Statement on the Ukraine Crisis and European Stability”, April 1, 2015, International Crisis Group, as found on the www at http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/media-releases/2015/europe/statement-on-the-ukraine-crisis-and-european-stability.aspx (“Over the long term, Russia’s position is both unsustainable and deleterious to its people. Russia claims a partnership with China, but Beijing shares few core interests with it and is the stronger and rising power. Its economy has not diversified and remains highly dependent on exports of energy and raw materials.”).
[xc] “India wants fruitful relations with both US, BRICS”, January 26, 2015, RT, as found on the www at http://rt.com/op-edge/226303-india-usa-visit-obama-relations/; Novosti, Ria, “BRICS should have dialogue with the West, not confrontation, say experts”, January 26, 2015, Russia and India Report, as found on the www ahttp://in.rbth.com/world/2015/01/26/brics_should_have_dialogue_with_the_west_not_confrontation_say_experts_41023.html; “Brazil Hopes BRICS Members to Ratify Bank Agreement Soon”, January 25, 2015, Sputnik, as found on the www at jhttp://sputniknews.com/business/20150128/1017435214.html; “China calls for swift movement on BRICS development bank”, November 14, 2014, Financial Insider, as found on the www at http://www.businessinsider.com/afp-china-calls-for-swift-movement-on-brics-development-bank-2014-11; and Bello, Walden, “The BRICS: Challengers to the Global Status Quo”, September 1, 2014, Toward Freedom, as found on the www at http://www.towardfreedom.com/33-archives/globalism/3652-the-brics-challengers-to-the-global-status-quo (This column is an excerpted from a working paper in the TNI series, “Shifting Power – Critical perspectives on emerging economies”).
[xci] “Will China Strike against ISIS?”, July 4, 2014, Israeli Defense, as found on the www at http://www.israeldefense.co.il/en/content/will-china-strike-against-isis.
[xcii] Jun, Kwanwoo, and Gale, Alistair, “South Korea Says It Will Join China-Led Investment Bank Seoul makes assurances about AIIB’s governance, which U.S. has been wary about” “, March 26, 2015, Wall Street Journal, as found on the www at http://www.wsj.com/articles/south-korea-says-it-will-join-china-led-asia-infrastructure-investment-bank-142737316 (After deliberation, South Korea applied to the AIIB for PFM status. South Korea has long been a key U.S. ally. “Seoul’s challenge in balancing ties between the U.S. and China can also be seen in a dispute over the possible deployment of a U.S. missile defense battery in South Korea. Beijing has publicly opposed the idea, which the U.S. says would ensure protection from North Korea missiles.” South Korea’s announcement came directly after civil war in Yemen forced the U.S. to forefeit its military base there. The base was critical to protect shipping in the Yemen Straits.). See also Kirk, Donald, “China’s Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Upsets U.S., Lures U.S. Allies, Including Korea,” March 23, 2015, Forbes Asia, as found on the www at http://www.forbes.com/sites/donaldkirk/2015/03/23/chinas-asian-infrastructure-investment-bank-upsets-u-s-lures-u-s-allies-including-korea/; Northam, Jackie, “European Allies Defy U.S. In Joining China-Led Development Bank”, March 17, 2015, NPR News, as found on the www at http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2015/03/17/393651665/european-allies-defy-u-s-in-joining-china-led-development-bank?sc=17?f=&utm_source=iosnewsapp&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=app; “EU allies defy US to join China-led Asian Bank”, March 17, 2015, as found on the www at http://thebricspost.com/eu-allies-defy-us-to-join-china-led-asian-bank/#%2EVQgWJGX27S8%2Elinkedin (““Every government can make its own decision about whether the way to achieve that goal is by joining before the articles of agreement are clarified or by waiting to see what the evidence looks like as the bank starts to operate,” the US official was quoted by Reuters.”); “US Dismayed as Britain Joins BRICS Bank”, March 13, 2015, Mina, as found on the www at http://macedoniaonline.eu/content/view/27109/52/ (“The Obama administration accused the UK of a “constant accommodation” of China after Britain decided to join a new BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) financial institution that rivals the World Bank.”); and ’“German deputy speaker: NATO must stop Turkey support for ISIS”, December 10, 2014, Rudaw, as found on the www at http://rudaw.net/english/middleeast/12102014.
[xciii] NATO Newsroom, as found on the www at http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_room.htm. (In 2014, NATO combined forces with six Eastern European allies, intercepted 400 Russian planes, deployed 5,000 troops to neighboring Kosovo, also an area plagued by genocide, and trained 352,000 Afghanistan troops, empowering self-governance.).
[xciv] See NATO [NATO] (20 March 2015) #UK is a staunch #NATO Ally http://goo.gl/wX97qg . Retrieved from https://twitter.com/NATO/status/576370096005865472.
[xcv] NATO [NATO] (18 March 2015) #NATO SG on the so-called treaty btwn Russia & the South Ossetia region of Georgia: http://goo.gl/MQ9d3a . Retrieved from https://twitter.com/NATO/status/578228279414550528; NATO [NATO] (20 March 2015) #NATO SG discusses #Russia relations at #BrusselsForum10 http://goo.gl/CK39pc Retrieved from https://twitter.com/NATO/status/578976739050811392.
[xcvi] “Statement by the NATO Secretary General on the so-called treaty between the Russian Federation and the South Ossetia region of Georgia”, NATO Newsroom, March 18, 2015, as found on the www at http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_118280.htm?mode=pressrelease (“NATO does not recognize the so-called treaty on alliance and integration signed between the South Ossetia region of Georgia and Russia on 18 March. This so-called treaty is yet another move by the Russian Federation that hampers ongoing efforts by the international community to strengthen security and stability in the region. It violates Georgia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity and blatantly contradicts the principles of international law, OSCE principles and Russia’s international commitments. It does not contribute to a peaceful and lasting settlement of the situation in Georgia.”).
[xcvii] Lardner, Cynthia, “Corporatized Terror”, Game of Thrones, January 17, 2015, as found on the www at https://cynthiamlardner.wordpress.com/page/2/#_ednref18.
[xcviii] Lehmann, Jean-Pierre, “China And The US: The AIIB Fiasco & America’s Colossal Loss Of Face”, April 2, 2015, Forbes, as found on the www at http://www.forbes.com/sites/jplehmann/2015/04/02/china-and-the-us-the-aiib-fiasco-americas-colossal-loss-of-face/
[xcix] As observed by diplomat and scholar Henry Kissinger:
For most of history, civilizations have defined their own concepts of order, each one envisioning its distinct principles as universally relevant. Now, as international affairs take place on a global basis, these historic concepts of world order are meeting. Every region participates in questions of high policy in every other, often instantaneously – yet there is no consensus among the major actors about the rules and limits guiding this process, or its ultimate destination. The result is mounting tension.
Blending historical insight with prognostication, World Order is a meditation from one of our era’s most prominent diplomats on the 21st century’s ultimate challenge: how to build a shared international order in a world of divergent historic perspectives, violent conflict, proliferating technology and ideological extremism.
Kissinger, Henry, “World Order: Reflections on the Character of Nations and the Course of History” (New York: Penguin Press, September 9, 2014). See Micklethwait, John, “As the World Turns Henry Kissinger’s ‘World Order’”, September 11, 2014, New York Times, as found on the www at http://mobile.nytimes.com/2014/09/14/books/review/henry-kissingers-world-order.html?referrer=&_r=0 (John Micklethwait is The Economist’s editor in chief and a co-author of “The Fourth Revolution: The Global Race to Reinvent the State.”). See also “Bill Gates: ‘We Need Global Government,’ Is The Richest Man In The World Calling For A New World Order?”, January 31, 2015, Inquisitr, as found on the www at http://www.inquisitr.com/1804723/bill-gates-we-need-global-government-is-the-richest-man-in-the-world-calling-for-a-new-world-order/#oSRHjqwutRHB4CWo.99 (“[T]he UN system has failed. [The UN was] created especially [for security] in the world.”); Vltchek, Andre, “Kashmir is Bleeding: Half of Humanity Now Forms the ‘Resistance’”, January 30, 2015, Counterpunch, as found on the www at http://www.counterpunch.org/2015/01/30/half-of-humanity-now-forms-the-resistance/ (Andre Vltchek is a novelist, filmmaker and investigative journalist. He covered wars and conflicts in dozens of countries. His critically acclaimed political revolutionary novel Point of No Return is now re-edited and available. Oceania is his book on Western imperialism in South Pacific. His provocative book about post-Suharto Indonesia and market-fundamentalist model is called “Indonesia – The Archipelago of Fear” (Pluto). He just completed feature documentary “Rwanda Gambit” about Rwandan history and the plunder of DR Congo. After living for many years in Latin America and Oceania, Vltchek presently resides and works in East Asia and Africa);
[c] Meeker, Joel, “The State of the World 2015,” Life, Hope and Truth, January-February 2015, as found on the www athttp://lifehopeandtruth.com/discern/jan-feb-2015/the-state-of-the-world-2015/, citing Sept. 24, 2014, un.org (Opening remarks on September 14, 2014 to the General Assembly comprised of leaders from 193 nations).
[ci] Posner, Sarah, “Pope Francis will have some US legislators ‘squirming in their seats’”, February 9, 2015, Al Jazeera, as found on the www http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/2/10/why-pope-francis-speech-will-get-us-legislators-squirming-in-their-seats.html.
[cii] Clifton, Jon, Infra, Endnote No. lii.